Quoting And Paraphrasing
College answerableness frequently involves integrating notification from published springs into your own answerableness in regulate to add truthfulness and fabricatority–this order is adventitious to elaboration and the evolution of new cognizance.
However, when architecture on the is-sue of others, you absence to be attentive not to plagiarize: “to smuggle and ignoring off (the conceptions and say of another) as one’s own” or to “produce as new and shapeer an conception or fruit moderate from an esthetic spring.”
These esthetics conquer aid you eschew plagiarism by training you how to uprightly sum notification from published springs into your own answerableness.
How To Eschew Plagiarism
When using springs in your pamphlets, you can eschew plagiarism by intelligent what must be instrumented.
Specific Say and Phrases
If you use an fabricator’s unfair tidings or say, you must establish those say unarranged passage signs and you must confidence the spring.
Information And Ideas
Even if you use your own say, if you obtained the notification or conceptions you are produceing from a spring, you must instrument the spring.
Information: If a ingredient of notification isn’t low cognizance (see underneath), you absence to supply a spring.
Ideas: An fabricator’s conceptions may involve not singly aims made and conclusions drawn, but, for illustration, a unfair way or supposition, the provision of esthetic, or a register of plods in a order or characteristics of a medical predicament. If a spring supplyd any of these, you absence to accognizance the spring.
You do not absence to refer-to a spring for esthetic considered low cognizance:
General low cognizance is fexplicit notification considered to be in the collective lordship, such as nativity and dissolution dates of well-known figures, and unconcealedly current dates of soldierlike, political, erudite, and other unvarnished equablets. In unconcealed, fexplicit notification contained in multiple mearegular allusion is-sues can usually be considered to be in the collective lordship.
Field-unfair low cognizance is “common” singly unarranged a aim province or component. It may involve facts, theories, or ways that are accustomed to decipherers unarranged that strictness. For illustration, you may not absence to refer-to a allusion to Piaget’s developmental ranges in a pamphlet for an instruction dispose or concede a spring for your title of a lowly used way in a biology repute—but you must be regular that this notification is so widely known unarranged that province that it conquer be shared by your decipherers.
If in vacillate, be timid and refer-to the spring. And in the fact of twain unconcealed and province-unfair low cognizance, if you use the correct say of the allusion spring, you must use passage signs and confidence the spring.
Paraphrasing Vs. Quoting - Explanation
Should I Exsituation or Quote
In unconcealed, use frequented passages singly if you keep a good-natured-natured argue. Most of your pamphlet should be in your own say. Also, it’s frequently prevalent to cite elevate unsparingly from springs when you’re answerableness a humanities pamphlet, and to digest from springs when you’re answerableness in the collective or true sciences–but there are constantly ateions.
In a erudite anatomy pamphlet, for illustration, you”ll absence to cite from the erudite passage rather than digest, owing portio of your undertaking in this bark of pamphlet is to dissect the unfair say and propertys an fabricator uses.
In elaboration pamphlets, you should quote from a spring
- to semblance that an fabricatority restations your aim
- to produce a lie or discussion to critique or expound on
- to involve properly moving or unvarnishedly symbolical discourse
- to produce a aimly well-stated ignoringage whose significance would be obsolete or radical if expositiond or digestd
You should digest or exposition when
- what you absence from the spring is the idea expressed, and not the unfair discourseused to frequented it
- you can frequented in fewer say what the key aim of a spring is
How To Exsituation a Source
- When lection a ignoringage, try primitive to conceive it as a undiminished, rather than pausing to transcribe down unfair conceptions or propertys.
- Be selective. Unhither your assignment is to do a shapely or “literal” exposition, you usually don't absence to exsituation an full ignoringage; instead, elect and digest the esthetic that aids you shape a aim in your pamphlet.
- Think of what “your own say” would be if you were powerful someone who’s unaccustomed forthcoming a while your symbolical (your woman, your tally, a adherent) what the shapeer spring said.
- Remember that you can use frequented passages of propertys from the shapeer unarranged your exposition, and that you don’t absence to veer or put passage signs environing shared discourse.
Methods of Paraphrasing
- Look abroad from the spring then transcribe.
Read the passage you absence to exsituation distinct dates until you arrive-at that you conceive it and can use your own say to restate it to someone else. Then, face abroad from the shapeer and retranscribe the passage in your own say.
- Take notes.
Take abbreviated notes; set the notes aside; then exsituation from the notes a day or so forthcomingcited, or when you draw.
If you perceive that you can’t do A or B, this may moderation that you don’t conceive the ignoringage perfectly or that you absence to use a elevate constitutiond order until you keep elevate test in paraphrasing.
The way underneath is not singly a way to shape a exsituation but as-well a way to conceive a involved passage.
Paraphrasing Involved Texts
Consider the forthcomingcited ignoringage from Love and Toil (a quantity on womanhood in London from 1870 to 1918), in which the fabricator, Ellen Ross, puts forth one of her superior discussions:
- Love and Toil maintains that fount performance was the woman’s deep admonish unarranged the great superiority of London?s population who were weak or is-sueing dispose; the moving and psychological manage of her offshoot or offshootren and equable their explicit ease were constrained into the enhancement. To woman was to is-sue for and shape free restation. (p. 9)
- Change the constitution
Begin by set-on-footing at a irrelative establish in the ignoringage and/or adjudication(s), basing your valuable on the centre of your pamphlet. This conquer administer truely to some veers in tidingsing. Some establishs you capability set-on-foot in the ignoringage overhead are “The woman’s deep admonish,” “Among the . . . weak or is-sueing dispose,” “Working for and organizing free restation,” or “The moving and psychological manage.” Or you could originate forthcoming a while one of the nation the ignoringage is environing: “Mothers,” “A woman,” “Children,” “A offshoot.” Focusing on unfair nation rather than abstractions conquer shape your exsituation elevate decipherable.At this range, you capability as-well split up desire adjudications, attach abrupt ones, swell propertys for clarity, or abrupten them for coherence, or you capability do this in an added plod. In this order, you’ll truely explain some say and veer others.Here’s one of the manifold ways you capability get set-on-footed forthcoming a while a exsituation of the ignoringage overhead by changing its constitution. In this fact, the centre of the pamphlet is the result of economic foothold on offshootren at the metamorphose of the era, so the transcriber originates forthcoming a while offshootren:Children of the weak at the metamorphose of the era current tiny if any moving or psychological nurturing from their womans, whose deep admonish was fount performance. Established for and organizing free restation were what defined womaning. Next to this, equable the offshootren’s basic ease was constrained into the enhancement (Ross, 1995).Now you’ve succeeded in changing the constitution, but the ignoringage quiescent contains manifold frequented passages, so you absence to go on to the assist plod.
- Change the say
Use synonyms or a property that frequentedes the similar significance. Liberty shared disprogress unchanged.It’s dignified to set-on-foot by changing the constitution, not the say, but you capability perceive that as you veer the say, you see ways to veer the constitution elevate. The conclusive exsituation capability face enjoy this:According to Ross (1993), weak offshootren at the metamorphose of the era current tiny womaning in our sagacity of the vocable. Mothering was defined by economic foothold, and unarranged the weak, a woman’s main obligation was not to stimulate her offshootren’s minds or raise their moving enlargement but to supply subsistence and sanctuary to part-amonge the basic requirements for corporeal performance. Given the concretion of this undertaking, offshootren were denied of equable the “explicit ease” (p. 9) we forebode womans to supply today.
You may absence to go through this order distinct dates to shape a acceptable exposition.
Successful Vs. Unsuccessful Paraphrases
Paraphrasing is frequently defined as putting a ignoringage from an fabricator into “your own say.” But what are your own say? How irrelative must your exsituation be from the shapeer?
The conditions underneath supply an illustration by semblanceing a ignoringage as it answers in the spring, two expositions that flourish the spring too closely, and a fairly-deduced exposition.
The student’s sketch was to strengthen the esthetic in the shapeer ignoringage into a ateion of a pamphlet on the concept of “experts” that compared the characters of experts and nonexperts in distinct professions.
The Road As It Appears In The Source
Critical solicitude comforts character in a hierarchy of roles. In this known character surgery part-among, the comfort supervisor hires and fires the nursing identicalnel. The comfort supervisor does not frequentedly solicitude for resigneds but flourishs the way of strange or desire-vocable resigneds. On each transfer a comfort assumes the role of respring comfort. This identical oversees the hour-by-hour charactering of the part-among-among as a undiminished, such as regarding forebodeed admissions and discharges of resigneds, ascertaining that beds are suited for resigneds in the unhindered ground, and protection ill calls. Respring comforts as-well accept a resigned assignment. They are the most testd of all the staff comforts. The comfort clinician has a disjoined job title and supplys for dissituation of solicitude by orienting new staff, developing part-among-among policies, and providing frequented restation where absenceed, such as conducive in embarrassment situations. The clinical comfort speciaregister in this part-among-among is mainly confused forthcoming a while shapely training in orienting new staff. The comfort supervisor, comfort clinician, and clinical comfort speciaregister are the rooted experts. They do not accept resigned assignments. The respring comfort is seen as twain a solicitudegiver and a respring to other solicitudegivers. . . . Staff comforts keep a hierarchy of eldership. . . . Staff comforts are assigned to resigneds to supply all their nursing solicitude. (Chase, 1995, p. 156)
Critical solicitude comforts keep a hierarchy of roles. The comfort supervisor hires and firesnurses. S/he does not frequentedly solicitude for resigneds but does flourish strange or desire-termcases. On each transfer a respring comfort observes to the functioning of the part-among-among as a undiminished, such as making regular beds are suited in the unhindered ground, and as-well has a resigned assignment. The comfort clinician orients new staff, develops policies, and supplys restation where absenceed. The clinical comfort speciaregister as-well orients new staff, mainly by shapely training. The comfort supervisor, comfort clinician, and clinical comfort properist, as the rooted experts, do not accept resigned assignments. The respring comfort is not singly a solicitudegiver but a respring to the other solicitudegivers. Unarranged the staff comforts there is as-well a hierarchy of eldership. Their job is to concede assigned resigneds all their nursing solicitude.
Why This Is Plagiarism
Notice that the transcriber has not singly “borrowed” Chase’s esthetic (the results of her elaboration) forthcoming a while no reception, but has as-well greatly deeptained the fabricator’s way of frequentedion and adjudication constitution. The propertys in red are frequentedly copied from the spring or radical singly part-amongially in shape.
Even if the student-writer had propoundd Chase as the spring of the resigned, the disprogress of the ignoringage would be considered plagiarized owing no passage signs denote the propertys that end frequentedly from Chase. And if passage signs did answer environing all these propertys, this condition would be so cluttered that it would be unreadable.
A Patchis-sue Paraphrase
Chase (1995) describes how comforts in a nice solicitude part-among character in a hierarchy that establishs rooted experts at the top and the last important staff comforts at the ground. The experts — the comfort supervisor, comfort clinician, and clinical comfort speciaregister — are not confused frequentedly in resigned solicitude. The staff comforts, in contrariety, are assigned to resignedsand supply all their nursing solicitude. Unarranged the staff comforts is a hierarchy of eldership in which the most important can beend respring comforts: they are assigned a resigned but as-well suffice-for as a respring to other solicitudegivers. The experts keep administrative and training undertakings such as selecting and orienting new staff, developing part-among-among policies, and giving hands-on foundation where absenceed.
Why This Is Plagiarism
This exsituation is a patchis-sue victorious of ingredients in the shapeer fabricator’s disprogress (in red) and ingredients in the student-writer’s say, all rearranged into a new sample, but forthcoming a while none of the assumed ingredients in passage signs. Thus, equable though the transcriber propounds the spring of the esthetic, the underlined propertys are untruly produceed as the student’s own.
A Fairly-deduced Paraphrase
In her con-over of the roles of comforts in a nice solicitude part-among, Chase (1995) as-well rest a hierarchy that noted the roles of experts and others. Just as the instructional experts illustrative overhead do not frequentedly admonish students, the experts in this part-among-among do not frequentedly observe to resigneds. That is the role of the staff comforts, who, enjoy admonishers, keep their own “hierarchy of eldership” (p. 156). The roles of the experts involve employing part-among-among comforts and overseeing the solicitude of proper resigneds (comfort supervisor), training and otherwise integrating new identicalnel into the part-among-among (clinical comfort speciaregister and comfort clinician), and management-making (comfort clinician). In an included lie in the hierarchy is the respring comfort, a staff comfort forthcoming a while elevate test than the others, who assumes frequented solicitude of resigneds as the other staff comforts do, but as-well accepts on undertakings to enregular the mitigate performance of the full address.
Why This Is A Good-natured Paraphrase
The transcriber has instrumented Chase’s esthetic and unfair disprogress (by frequented allusion to the fabricator and by passage signs environing disprogress acceptn frequentedly from the spring). Notice too that the transcriber has qualified Chase’s disprogress and constitution and has added esthetic to fit the new conpassage and intention — to produce the embossed characters of experts and nonexperts in distinct professions.
Perhaps you’ve noticed that a sum of propertys from the shapeer ignoringage answer in the fairly-deduced exposition: nice solicitude, staff comforts, comfort supervisor, clinical comfort properist, comfort clinician, respring comfort.
If all these propertys were in red, the exsituation would face greatly enjoy the “patchwork” illustration. The contrariety is that the propertys in the fairly-deduced exsituation are all punctilious, restricted, and prevalent designations that are portio of the shared disprogress unarranged the nursing strictness (in the too-close expositions, they’re red singly when used unarranged a desireer assumed property).
In every strictness and in regular genres (such as the experimental elaboration repute), some propertys are so properized or prevalent that you can’t exsituation them ate by tidingsy and boorish circumlocutions that would be hither accustomed (and thus hither decipherable) to the reception.
When you cite such propertys, you’re not smuggleing the unsordid phrasing of an identical transcriber but using a low vocabulary shared by a brotherhood of scholars.
Some Examples Of Shared Disprogress You Don’t Absence To Put In Passage Marks
- Conventional designations: e.g., physician’s attendant, constant low-back pain
- Preferred bias-free discourse: e.g., identicals forthcoming a while disabilities
- Technical vocables and propertys of a strictness or genre: e.g., reduplication, apprehensive lordship, esthetic cultivation, sexual harassment
Chase, S. K. (1995). The collective conpassage of nice solicitude clinical adjudication. Character and Lung, 24, 154-162.
How To Cite A Source
Introducing A Quotation
One of your jobs as a transcriber is to regulate your decipherer through your passage. Don’t solely ooze passages into your pamphlet and liberty it to the decipherer to shape cohereions.
Integrating a passage into your passage usually involves two elements:
- A signal that a passage is coming–generally the fabricator’s designate and/or a allusion to the is-sue
- An assertion that denotes the harmony of the passage to your passage
Often twain the eminent and the assumption answer in a one preliminary declaration, as in the illustration underneath. Notice how a progressive property as-well suffice-fors to cohere the passage mitigately to the preliminary declaration.
Ross (1993), in her con-over of weak and is-sueing-dispose womans in London from 1870-1918 [signal], shapes it plain that economic foothold to a great degree rooted the significance of womanhood [assertion]. Unarranged this population [connection], “To woman was to is-sue for and shape free restation” (p. 9).
The eminent can as-well end forthcoming the assumption, frequently forthcoming a while a cohereing tidings or property:
Illness was casually a regulation subject in the nineteenth era [assertion]. As [connection] Ross observes [signal], “Maternal fancying environing offshootren’s vigor revolved environing the possibility of a offshoot’s maiming or dissolution” (p. 166).
Short Frequented Prose
Incorporate abrupt frequented prose passages into the passage of your pamphlet and encircle them in envelop passage signs:
According to Jonathan Clarke, “Professional diplomats frequently say that involved to fancy diplomatically environing exotic management is a diminish of date.”
Longer Prose Quotations
Begin desireer passages (for illustration, in the APA order, 40 say or elevate) on a new direction and roughen the full passage (i.e., put in arrest shape), forthcoming a while no passage signs at originatening or end, as in the cited ignoringage from our Successful vs. Unsucessful Paraphrases page.
Rules environing the stint extension of arrest passages, how manifold intervals to roughen, and whether to one- or envelop-interval sufficient passages deviate forthcoming a while irrelative instrumentation orders; stop the regulatelines for the order you’re using.
Quotation Of Up To 3 Lines Of Poetry
Quotations of up to 3 directions of poetry should be sumd into your adjudication. For illustration:
In Julius Caesar, Antony originates his far-famed address forthcoming a while “Friends, Romans, Countrymen, grant me your ears; / I end to compose Caesar, not to eulogize him” (III.ii.75-76).
Notice that a slash (/) forthcoming a while a interval on either party is used to disjoined directions.
Quotation Of Elevate Than 3 Lines Of Poetry
More than 3 directions of poetry should be roughened. As forthcoming a while any sufficient (indented) passage, do not use passage signs unhither you absence to denote a passage unarranged your passage.
Punctuating Forthcoming a while Passage Marks
With abrupt passages, establish passages outparty of failure passage signs, flourished by adjudication punctuation (period, inquiry sign, comma, semi-colon, colon):
Menand (2002) characterizes disprogress as “a collective weapon” (p. 115).
With arrest passages, stop the regulatelines for the instrumentation order you are using.
Commas And Periods
Place inparty failure passage signs when no parenthetical passage flourishs:
Hertzberg (2002) notes that “treating the Constitution as faulty is not new,” but owing of Dahl’s credentials, his “apostasy merits attention” (p. 85).
Semicolons And Colons
Place outparty of failure passage signs (or forthcoming a parenthetical passage).
Question Marks And Exclamation Points
Place inparty failure passage signs if the passage is a inquiry/exclamation:
Menand (2001) propounds that H. W. Fowler’s Modern English Usage is “a disposeic of the discourse,” but he asks, “Is it a gone disposeic?” (p. 114).
[Note that a age quiescent flourishs the failure parenthesis.]
Place outparty of failure passage signs if the full adjudication containing the passage is a inquiry or exclamation:
How manifold students explicitly decipher the regulate to perceive out what is moderationt by “academic misconduct”?
Quotation Unarranged A Quotation
Use one passage signs for the embedded passage:
According to Hertzberg (2002), Dahl concedes the U. S. Constitution “bad signs in ‘democratic fairness’ and ‘encouraging consensus'” (p. 90).
[The propertys “democratic fairness” and “encouraging consensus” are already in passage signs in Dahl’s adjudication.]
Indicating Changes In Quotations
Quoting Singly A Division Of The Whole
Use ellipsis aims (. . .) to denote an oversight unarranged a passage–but not at the originatening or end unhither it’s not open that you’re quoting singly a division of the undiminished.
Adding Clarification, Comment, Or Correction
Within passages, use balance brackets [ ] (not parentheses) to add your own tenuity, expound, or emendation.
Use [sic] (significance “so” or “thus”) to denote that a misaccept is in the spring you’re quoting and is not your own.
Information On Summarizing And Paraphrasing Sources
American Heritage Dictionary of the English Disprogress (4th ed.). (2000). Retrieved January 7, 2002, from http://www.bartleby.com/61/
Bazerman, C. (1995). The cognizant transcriber: Using springs in the strictnesss (5th ed). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Leki, I. (1995). Academic answerableness: Exploring orderes and strategies (2nd ed.) New York: St. Martin?s Press, pp. 185-211.
Leki describes the basic way produceed in C, pp. 4-5.
Spatt, B. (1999). Answerableness from springs (5th ed.) New York: St. Martin?s Press, pp. 98-119; 364-371.
Information Environing Unfair Documentation Systems
The Answerableness Center has handouts explaining how to use manifold of the mearegular instrumentation orders. You may face at our unconcealed Web page on Documentation Systems, or you may stop out any of the forthcomingcited unfair Web pages.
If you’re not regular which instrumentation order to use, ask the progress professor who assigned your pamphlet.
- American Psychological Association (APA)
- Modern Disprogress Association (MLA)
- Chicago/Turabian (A Footnote or Endnote System)
- American Political Science Association (APSA)
- Council of Science Editors (CBE)
- Numbered References
You may as-well question the forthcomingcited regulates:
- American Medical Association, Manual for Authors and Editors
- Council of Science Editors, CBE title Manual
- The Chicago Manual of Style
- MLA Handquantity for Writers of Elaboration Papers
- Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association