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In this final written assignment, you will combine what you have done in these two exercises by examining an ethical issue and defending your own position on an ethical question regarding that issue.

This final written assignment should be written in essay form with the following clearly labeled sections:

  1. Introduction
  2. Ethical Argument
  3. Explanation and Defense
  4. Objection and Response
  5. Conclusion

The paper should be between 1,300 and 1,500 words, utilize three scholarly resources, and include a title page and reference page.

Part 1: Introduction

In this section of the paper, you will begin with your ethical question, introduce the topic and paper, and close with a thesis statement.

  • The ethical question may be the same as your Week 3 written assignment (“Applying an Ethical Theory”) or a revised version of it.
  • The introduction should be revised in a way that reflects your additional thinking on the issue and question.
  • End this section with a thesis statement that states your position on the issue (the answer to the ethical question you believe is strongest) and provides a brief summary of the main ideas you will be presenting in the paper. Please see the assignment guidance for examples of thesis statements.

Place the introduction under the Part 1: Introduction heading.

Part 2: Ethical Argument

In this section of the paper, you will present the strongest argument you can in support of the position you have stated in your introduction.

  • This will be similar to the “supporting reasons” you offered in the first assignment; however, this argument should reflect your research into the key ethical issues that need to be identified and addressed, the arguments on different sides of this problem, and the theories of moral reasoning we have studied in the class (you will discuss the specific details and implications of the moral theories in the next two sections).
  • You can think of this as a summary of the main argument you would give if you were an attorney trying to convince a jury of your position.

Place this information under the Part 2: Ethical Argument heading.

Part 3: Explanation and Defense

In this section, you will explain and defend your argument by drawing on the moral theory that aligns most closely with the argument you presented in Part 2. This may be the same theory you discussed in your second assignment, but it may also be a different theory.

  • You must first explain the theory in general terms similar to how you explained a theory in your second assignment, including a brief account of the historical background of the theory and the philosopher(s) associated with it and general overview of the core moral ideal or principle of the theory, including the way it guides and constrains moral reasoning.
  • You should then clearly show how your argument represents an application of that form of moral reasoning.
  • In other words, if the argument you present in Part 2 is utilitarian, deontological, or virtue-based (teleological), you will want to explain utilitarianism, deontology, or virtue ethics in general terms, then explain how your argument from Part 2 reflects or draws upon the core principles and values of that theory. Please refer to the Week 3 assignment instructions for directions on how to explain and apply the moral theory.

Place this section under the Part 3: Explanation and Defense heading.

Part 4: Objection and Response

In this section of the paper, you will present the strongest objection you can to your argument, and briefly defend that objection by appealing to a different ethical theory than the one you focused on in Part 3.

  • Briefly explain the core moral ideal or principle of the theory and how that could be the basis of an objection to your argument. For instance, if you explained and defended your own argument by applying the principles of virtue ethics, you could raise an objection from the perspective of utilitarianism by briefly explaining the core utilitarian principle and how applying that principle could lead someone to a different conclusion than the one you are defending.
  • Next, you should respond to the objection by explaining why it is not strong enough to undermine the main argument in defense of your position.
  • See the assignment guidance for suggestions on how to effectively respond to the objection.

Place this section under the Part 4: Objection and Response heading.

Part 5: Conclusion

In this section of the paper, provide a summary of what you have done in the paper by briefly describing what you accomplished in each of the above sections.

Place this section under the Part 5: Conclusion heading.

Resource Requirement

You must use at least three scholarly resources, only one of which may be the textbook. In other words, you must use at least two scholarly resources in addition to the textbook.

Acceptable ways of using a source include providing a quotation, summary, or paraphrase; merely providing a citation, especially when it is unclear how or where the text supports your claim, is not sufficient.

If you need help with finding additional resources or are unsure about whether a particular resource will count toward the requirement, please contact your instructor.

For sources to count toward the resources requirement, they must be cited within the text of your paper and on the reference page. Sources that are listed on the references page but not cited within the paper do not count toward fulfilling the resources requirement.

In your paper,

  • Introduce the topic and paper.
  • Provide a thesis statement.
  • Present an argument in support of the position.
  • Defend the argument by explaining and applying the ethical theory that most closely aligns with the argument.
  • Present an objection to the argument by appealing to a different ethical theory.
  • Respond to the objection.
  • Provide a conclusion that describes what was accomplished in each of the sections of the paper.

The Ethical Reasoning Final Paper

  • Must be 1,300 to 1,500 words in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center’s APA Style  (Links to an external site.)resource.
  • Must include a separate title page with the following:
  • Title of paper
  • Student’s name
  • Course name and number
  • Instructor’s name
  • Date submitted

For further assistance with the formatting and the title page, refer to APA Formatting for Word 2013 (Links to an external site.).

  • Must utilize academic voice. See the Academic Voice (Links to an external site.) resource for additional guidance.
  • Must use at least two scholarly sources in addition to the course text.
  • The Scholarly, Peer Reviewed, and Other Credible Sources (Links to an external site.) table offers additional guidance on appropriate source types. If you have questions about whether a specific source is appropriate for this assignment, please contact your instructor. Your instructor has the final say about the appropriateness of a specific source for a particular assignment.
  • Must document any information used from sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center’s Citing Within Your Paper (Links to an external site.) guide.
  •  (Links to an external site.)Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. See the Formatting Your References List (Links to an external site.) resource in the Ashford Writing Center for specifications.

Running head: Parental consent on abortion for minor 

              Should a minor have to get parental consent before obtaining an abortion? 

                                                           Leyvis Taveras 

                                          PHI 208: Ethics and Moral Reasoning 

                                                       Prof. Robert Gertz 

                                                          June 26, 2019 

Parental consent on abortion for minor                                                                       2 

                         Parental consent before obtaining an abortion? 

Part 1: Ethical Question 

Should a minor have to get parental consent before obtaining an abortion?  

Part 2: Introduction 

Abortion is a serious issue and a concerning topic for many parents. According to 

Guttmacher institute, “there are currently thirty-seven states that require parental 

involvement in a minor’s decision to have an abortion. Teen pregnancy is a stressful 

experience for a minor and a sensitive topic to face with her parents. Statistic in the last 

decade had shown that teen pregnancy had gone down, according to CDC.gov, ” In 2017, 

a total of 194,377 babies were born to women aged 15- 19 years, for a birth rate of 18.8 

per 1,000 women in this age group. This is another record low for U.S. teens and a drop 

of 7% from 2016″, nevertheless in this last year there had been numerous debate about 

the right a parent have to consent or know if her teen is having a abortion, many agree 

that it’s the right of the underage child while others dispute that a parent have all the 

right to know when the young child is having an abortion. While some of this pregnancy 

are from statutory rape in which its understandable why the abortion will be necessary, 

parent have the right to know everything that is pertaining their children health and an 

abortion is no different as to any other procedure since it can be life threatening 

procedure, furthermore Abortion can lead to physical and psychological harm in 

addition parent can provide moral support and guidance for her underage child who is 

Parental consent on abortion for minor                                                                           3 

facing early pregnancy. The Law of parental consent when it come to a minor getting an 

abortion change from state to state. In other states you don’t have to get permission, 

but your parents will have to know that you’re getting an abortion. This can be bypass 

by judge, which mean the judge will have to give permission to have an abortion 

without telling your parents. This is called “judicial bypass”. In the state of Florida where 

I reside, requires that one of the parents be told of the minor decision 48 hours before 

the abortion. A judge can excuse the minor from this requirement. According to Planned 

Parenthood. Parental consent statutes were initially enacted in response to the fact that 

many minor women become pregnant each year, and a significant number of these 

consider having, and actually have, abortions. In this paper I will discuss why should or 

shouldn’t a minor need consent to get an abortion.”Despite the fact that parents 

generally have the best interests of their children in mind and they are legally liable for 

any costs or complications resulting from their minor daughter’s abortion, [in California] 

a minor under the age of 14 cannot use a tanning bed under any circumstance, but she 

can have an abortion without telling her parents. (Rudavsky, 2019). As Parent we look 

for the best interest for our children, yes, a parent may get upset at the fact that her 

child is pregnant at a early age, but a parent will also be the best support system that 

young lady have. As a parent we are legally responsible for our children’s and being 

involved in something as important as the decision to abort a pregnancy is a moral 

responsibility. A parent can help that child make the best decision and give the best 

advices.  

Parental consent on abortion for minor                                                                          4 

Part 3: Explanation of the Ethical Theory 

Abortion-rights opponents almost universally claim that abortion is murder and should 

be legally prohibited because the fetus is a moral person at the moment of conception. 

(Himma KE, 2005). The ethics of abortion has been a battleground between those that 

advocate prochoice and the one that advocate prolife. Warren preserves an extremely 

non-judgmental view on abortion, according to which abortion is morally acceptable at 

any stage of the pregnancy and under any circumstances. When I think about killing a 

baby inside of any woman, I think of many question, especially after coming across with 

so many debate in favor and in cons.  As a moral question Can an abortion be 

considered a justify killing or murder? When does life begin?  

According to Thomas Sadler “The development of a human begins with fertilization, a 

process by which the spermatozoon from the male and the oocyte from the female 

unite to give rise to a new organism, the zygote.” Life begin at fertilization, which mean 

that a baby already part of a woman as soon the egg is fertilize. Michael Tooley (1972) 

argues that “an organism possesses a serious right to life only if it possesses the concept 

of a self as a continuing subject of experiences and other mental states and believes 

that it is itself such a continuing entity” (p. 44). He goes on to say that “a newborn baby 

does not possess the concept of a continuing self, any more than a newborn kitten 

possesses such a concept. If so, infanticide during a time interval shortly after birth must 

be morally acceptable” (p. 64). Its absurd to say that someone is old enough to have a 

Parental consent on abortion for minor                                                                           5 

baby, Minor are not mature enough to handle obligations that a child entail, 

nevertheless abortion can be intimidating for a young child and bring many other 

consequences. Having a child is a responsibility no to be taking a lightly at any age. One 

of the consequences to an early pregnancy is school dropout. There are many other 

options other than an abortion. Many couple that can have children always looking to 

adopt a child. Which sound more ethical that taking always an innocent life. 

 Since the fetus is already a human, we can say that it has certain and all human have 

the right to live. Many people get fixed on terminologist like zygote, embryo or fetus, 

not realizing that those are just stages of life, just like developmental stages, infant, 

toddler, and teenager. At the very least, some argue, if there’s even a possibility that a 

fetus is an innocent person, we ought to err on the side of assuming that it is and forbid 

abortion, given the moral gravity of killing the innocent. (Thames, 2018). 

Part 4: Application of the Ethical Theory 

A fetus has a moral right to development and to live nevertheless it is not an unqualified 

claim against all other contemplations.  There are many that object with warren theory, 

claiming that If killing a baby is permissible because they are not filled develop or a 

fledged members of the moral community, then, by the same standard, killing a 

newborns baby would be acceptable too.  And what make it ethical right? (Thames, 

2018). Tothis issue let me bring in the view of Immanuel Kant, who is a firm believer 

Parental consent on abortion for minor                                                                          6 

that “ant would believe that under no circumstance would an abortion be justifiable 

because it would be murder to him, tying back to the idea that no person has the right 

to interfere with another person’s right to life . In this case we can look and apply the 

utilitarianism, which said that the action taken should have the greatest positive impact 

with the least amount of negative consequence. Let refresh a little on the negative 

consequence an abortion can have on a minor child, according to 

americanpregnancy.org, abortion can impact a underage emotional and psychological, 

many feel a mild regret to more serious complications such as depression”. Arnold, C. 

(2006). As utilitarianism imply the “least amount of negative consequence, looking at all 

the side effect of that an abortion in a young can bring, utilitarianism, is the most 

applicable theory to the issue of abortion. Utilitarian view believe that ethical value of 

any act is determined by the maximum amount of happiness. (Thames, 2018). Looking 

at the prolife argument in which abortion is unethical, the fetus is considered an human 

being and many people may be happy, greatest principle of happiness suggest that 

utilitarian theory does not endorse this view because as per principle many people may 

be happy or unhappy with the decision of abortion. Utilitarian endorse abortion on the 

basic of personal life, principle of greatest happiness and individual right. Abortion 

should be something that the minor child should decide according to that person own 

situation and the child should have their own right to decide who to discloses what 

happen with their body 

Parental consent on abortion for minor                                                                                  7 

References 

Parental Involvement in Minors’ Abortions. (2019, June 03). Retrieved June 08, 2019, 

from https://www.guttmacher.org/state-policy/explore/parental-involvement-minors-

abortions  

Arnold, C. (2006, July 26). Flexibility Built into Mass. Abortion Law. Retrieved June 11, 

2019, from https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5582900 

Sadler, T.W. Langman’s Medical Embryology. 7th edition. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins 

1995, p. 3] 

Himma KE A dualist analysis of abortion: personhood and the concept of self qua 

experiential subject Journal of Medical Ethics 2005;31:48-55 

Thames, B. (2018). How should one live? Introduction to ethics and moral reasoning (3rd 

ed.).  San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education 

Plannedparenthood.org. (2019). Parental Consent & Notification Laws | Teen Abortion 

Laws. from : https://www.plannedparenthood.org/learn/teens/preventing-

pregnancystds/parental-consent-and-notification-laws [Accessed 26 May 2019]. 

Parental consent on abortion for minor                                                                                                                8 

Arnold, C. (2006, July 26). Flexibility Built into Mass. Abortion Law. Retrieved June 11, 

2019, from https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5582900 





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